*NIX & Hacking —— 第5期

做一本我感兴趣的杂志,就这么简单!

C

Integer Overflow

Golang

breaking out of a select statement when all channels are closed

Kernel

Feature: High Memory In The Linux Kernel
What’s Next for Containers? User Namespaces

Network

Recent advancements in Linux TCP congestion control
SO_REUSEPORT – Scaling Techniques for Servers with High Connection Rates

Rust

Rust in Detail: Writing Scalable Chat Service from Scratch

Shell

fish shell

Easter egg

Announcing the first Art of Computer Programming eBooks
Goodbye Moto
Intel DDIO, LLC cache, buffer alignment, prefetching, shared locks and packet rates
Jokes
List of freely available Programming Books
Mandelbrot Set with SIMD Intrinsics

Linux kernel 笔记 (3) ——page和zone

MMU(Memory Management Unit)用来管理内存的最小单位是一个物理页面(physical page,在32-bit系统上通常每个页面为4k64-bit系统上为8k)。Linux kernel使用struct page结构体(定义在<linux/mm_types.h>)来代表每个物理页面:

struct page {
    /* First double word block */
    unsigned long flags;        /* Atomic flags, some possibly
                     * updated asynchronously */
    struct address_space *mapping;  /* If low bit clear, points to
                     * inode address_space, or NULL.
                     * If page mapped as anonymous
                     * memory, low bit is set, and
                     * it points to anon_vma object:
                     * see PAGE_MAPPING_ANON below.
                     */
    ......
}  

受制于一些硬件限制,有些物理页面不能用来进行某种操作。所以kernel把页面分成不同的zone
ZONE_DMA:用来进行DMA操作的页面;
ZONE_DMA32:也是用来进行DMA操作的页面,不过仅针对32-bit设备;
ZONE_NORMAL:包含常规的,用来映射的页面;
ZONE_HIGHMEM:包含不能永久地映射到kernel的地址空间(address space)的页面。
还有其它的zone定义(例如:ZONE_MOVABLE)。zone_type定义在 <linux/mmzone.h>文件里:

enum zone_type {
#ifdef CONFIG_ZONE_DMA
    /*
     * ZONE_DMA is used when there are devices that are not able
     * to do DMA to all of addressable memory (ZONE_NORMAL). Then we
     * carve out the portion of memory that is needed for these devices.
     * The range is arch specific.
     *
     * Some examples
     *
     * Architecture     Limit
     * ---------------------------
     * parisc, ia64, sparc  <4G
     * s390         <2G
     * arm          Various
     * alpha        Unlimited or 0-16MB.
     *
     * i386, x86_64 and multiple other arches
     *          <16M.
     */
    ZONE_DMA,
#endif
#ifdef CONFIG_ZONE_DMA32
    /*
     * x86_64 needs two ZONE_DMAs because it supports devices that are
     * only able to do DMA to the lower 16M but also 32 bit devices that
     * can only do DMA areas below 4G.
     */
    ZONE_DMA32,
#endif
    /*
     * Normal addressable memory is in ZONE_NORMAL. DMA operations can be
     * performed on pages in ZONE_NORMAL if the DMA devices support
     * transfers to all addressable memory.
     */
    ZONE_NORMAL,
#ifdef CONFIG_HIGHMEM
    /*
     * A memory area that is only addressable by the kernel through
     * mapping portions into its own address space. This is for example
     * used by i386 to allow the kernel to address the memory beyond
     * 900MB. The kernel will set up special mappings (page
     * table entries on i386) for each page that the kernel needs to
     * access.
     */
    ZONE_HIGHMEM,
#endif
    ZONE_MOVABLE,
    __MAX_NR_ZONES
};  

如果CPU体系结构允许DMA操作访问任何地址空间,那就没有ZONE_DMA。同理,Intel X86_64处理器可以访问所有的内存空间,也就不存在ZONE_HIGHMEM。 关于“High memory”,可以参考这篇文章