SLES（SUSE Linux Enterprise Server）和
SLES SP（SUSE Linux Enterprise Server Service Package）是不同的版本，
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server (SLES) is a Linux-based operating system developed by SUSE. It is designed for servers, mainframes, and workstations but can be installed on desktop computers for testing as well. Major versions are released at an interval of 3–4 years, while minor versions (called “Service Packs”) are released about every 18 months. SUSE Linux Enterprise products, including SUSE Linux Enterprise Server, receive more intense testing than the openSUSE community product, with the intention that only mature, stable versions of the included components will make it through to the released enterprise product. SLES 11 SP4 was released July 16th, 2015, which is developed from a common code base with SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop and other SUSE Linux Enterprise products.
linux-6fj5:/ # cat /etc/issue
Welcome to SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 11 SP4 (x86_64) - Kernel \r (\l).
debugfs is a simple to use RAM-based file system specially designed for debugging purposes. It exists as a simple way for kernel developers to make information available to user space. Unlike /proc, which is only meant for information about a process, or sysfs, which has strict one-value-per-file rules, debugfs has no rules at all. Developers can put any information they want there.
mount -t debugfs none /sys/kernel/debug
Binary writing has the nice benefit that it allows most of the virtual environment to run in userspace, but imposes a performance penalty.
The binary rewriting approach requires that the instruction stream be scanned by the virtualization environment and privileged instructions identified. These are then rewritten to point to their emulated versions.
Rather than dealing with problematic instructions, paravirtualization systems like Xen simply ignore them.
If a guest system executes an instruction that doesn’t trap while inside a paravirtualized environment, then the guest has to deal with the consequences. Conceptually, this is similar to the binary rewriting approach, except that the rewriting happens at compile time (or design time), rather than at runtime.
The environment presented to a Xen guest is not quite the same as that of a real x86 system. It is sufficiently similar, however, in that it is usually a fairly simple task to port an operating system to Xen.
From the perspective of an operating system, the biggest difference is that it runs in ring 1 on a Xen system, instead of ring 0. This means that it cannot perform any privileged instructions. In order to provide similar functionality, the hypervisor exposes a set of hypercalls that correspond to the instructions.
Now, both Intel and AMD have added a set of instructions that makes virtualization considerably easier for x86. AMD introduced AMD-V, formerly known as Pacifica, whereas Intel’s extensions are known simply as (Intel) Virtualization Technology (IVT or VT). The idea behind these is to extend the x86 ISA to make up for the shortcomings in the existing instruction set. Conceptually, they can be thought of as adding a “ring -1” above ring 0, allowing the OS to stay where it expects to be and catching attempts to access the hardware directly. In implementation, more than one ring is added, but the important thing is that there is an extra privilege mode where a hypervisor can trap and emulate operations that would previously have silently failed.
IVT adds a new mode to the processor, called VMX. A hypervisor can run in VMX mode and be invisible to the operating system, running in ring 0. When the CPU is in VMX mode, it looks normal from the perspective of an unmodified OS. All instructions do what they would be expected to, from the perspective of the guest, and there are no unexpected failures as long as the hypervisor correctly performs the emulation.
A set of extra instructions is added that can be used by a process in VMX root mode. These instructions do things like allocating a memory page on which to store a full copy of the CPU state, start, and stop a VM. Finally, a set of bitmaps is defined indicating whether a particular interrupt, instruction, or exception should be passed to the virtual machine’s OS running in ring 0 or by the hypervisor running in VMX root mode.
Hardware Virtual Machine），可以运行
The Definitive Guide to the Xen Hypervisor。