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Date: 十二月 16, 2015

Kubernetes笔记(6)—— kubectl代码分析(1)

kubectl实际运行的函数(k8s.io/kubernetes/pkg/kubectl/app/kubectl.go):

func Run() error {
    cmd := cmd.NewKubectlCommand(cmdutil.NewFactory(nil), os.Stdin, os.Stdout, os.Stderr)
    return cmd.Execute()
}

NewKubectlCommand的代码(k8s.io/kubernetes/pkg/kubectl/cmd/cmd.go):

// NewKubectlCommand creates the `kubectl` command and its nested children.
func NewKubectlCommand(f *cmdutil.Factory, in io.Reader, out, err io.Writer) *cobra.Command {
    // Parent command to which all subcommands are added.
    cmds := &cobra.Command{
        Use:   "kubectl",
        Short: "kubectl controls the Kubernetes cluster manager",
        Long: `kubectl controls the Kubernetes cluster manager.

Find more information at https://github.com/kubernetes/kubernetes.`,
        Run: runHelp,
        BashCompletionFunction: bash_completion_func,
    }

    f.BindFlags(cmds.PersistentFlags())

    // From this point and forward we get warnings on flags that contain "_" separators
    cmds.SetGlobalNormalizationFunc(util.WarnWordSepNormalizeFunc)

    cmds.AddCommand(NewCmdGet(f, out))
    cmds.AddCommand(NewCmdDescribe(f, out))
    cmds.AddCommand(NewCmdCreate(f, out))
    ......
    return &cmds
}

所以cmd := cmd.NewKubectlCommand(cmdutil.NewFactory(nil), os.Stdin, os.Stdout, os.Stderr)得到的cmd是一个指向cobra.Command的指针。

cmdutil.NewFactory代码(k8s.io/kubernetes/pkg/kubectl/cmd/util/factory.go):

// NewFactory creates a factory with the default Kubernetes resources defined
// if optionalClientConfig is nil, then flags will be bound to a new clientcmd.ClientConfig.
// if optionalClientConfig is not nil, then this factory will make use of it.
func NewFactory(optionalClientConfig clientcmd.ClientConfig) *Factory {
    mapper := kubectl.ShortcutExpander{RESTMapper: api.RESTMapper}

    flags := pflag.NewFlagSet("", pflag.ContinueOnError)
    flags.SetNormalizeFunc(util.WarnWordSepNormalizeFunc) // Warn for "_" flags

    generators := map[string]kubectl.Generator{
        "run/v1":                          kubectl.BasicReplicationController{},
        "run-pod/v1":                      kubectl.BasicPod{},
        "service/v1":                      kubectl.ServiceGeneratorV1{},
        "service/v2":                      kubectl.ServiceGeneratorV2{},
        "horizontalpodautoscaler/v1beta1": kubectl.HorizontalPodAutoscalerV1Beta1{},
        "deployment/v1beta1":              kubectl.DeploymentV1Beta1{},
        "job/v1beta1":                     kubectl.JobV1Beta1{},
    }

    clientConfig := optionalClientConfig
    if optionalClientConfig == nil {
        clientConfig = DefaultClientConfig(flags)
    }

    clients := NewClientCache(clientConfig)

    return &Factory{
        ......
    }

因为cmdutil.NewFactory(nil)参数为nil,所以调用的是DefaultClientConfig函数。

clientcmd.ClientConfig定义在k8s.io/kubernetes/pkg/client/unversioned/clientcmd/client_config.go文件:

// ClientConfig is used to make it easy to get an api server client
type ClientConfig interface {
    // RawConfig returns the merged result of all overrides
    RawConfig() (clientcmdapi.Config, error)
    // ClientConfig returns a complete client config
    ClientConfig() (*client.Config, error)
    // Namespace returns the namespace resulting from the merged
    // result of all overrides and a boolean indicating if it was
    // overridden
    Namespace() (string, bool, error)
}

DefaultClientConfig代码(k8s.io/kubernetes/pkg/kubectl/cmd/util/factory.go):

func DefaultClientConfig(flags *pflag.FlagSet) clientcmd.ClientConfig {
    loadingRules := clientcmd.NewDefaultClientConfigLoadingRules()
    flags.StringVar(&loadingRules.ExplicitPath, "kubeconfig", "", "Path to the kubeconfig file to use for CLI requests.")

    overrides := &clientcmd.ConfigOverrides{}
    flagNames := clientcmd.RecommendedConfigOverrideFlags("")
    // short flagnames are disabled by default.  These are here for compatibility with existing scripts
    flagNames.ClusterOverrideFlags.APIServer.ShortName = "s"

    clientcmd.BindOverrideFlags(overrides, flags, flagNames)
    clientConfig := clientcmd.NewInteractiveDeferredLoadingClientConfig(loadingRules, overrides, os.Stdin)

    return clientConfig
}

最后返回一个DeferredLoadingClientConfig结构体(定义在k8s.io/kubernetes/pkg/client/unversioned/clientcmd/merged_client_builder.go):

// DeferredLoadingClientConfig is a ClientConfig interface that is backed by a set of loading rules
// It is used in cases where the loading rules may change after you've instantiated them and you want to be sure that
// the most recent rules are used.  This is useful in cases where you bind flags to loading rule parameters before
// the parse happens and you want your calling code to be ignorant of how the values are being mutated to avoid
// passing extraneous information down a call stack
type DeferredLoadingClientConfig struct {
    loadingRules   *ClientConfigLoadingRules
    overrides      *ConfigOverrides
    fallbackReader io.Reader
}

 

Go语言的const

以下摘自The Go Programming Language

A const declaration gives names to constants, that is, values that are fixed at compile time. The value of a constant must be a number, string, or boolean.

const的值只能是数字,字符串或者布尔值。

 

A constant declaration may specify a type as well as a value, but in the absence of an explicit type, the type is inferred from the expression on the right-hand side.

当定义常量时没有指定其类型时,常量的类型将由等号右边的表达式来决定。

下面是如何定义一组constant

When a sequence of constants is declared as a group, the right-hand side expression may be omitted for all but the first of the group, implying that the previous expression and its type should be used again. For example:
const (
a = 1
b
c = 2
d
)
fmt.Println(a, b, c, d) // “1 1 2 2”

A const declaration may use the constant generator iota, which is used to create a sequence of related values without spelling out each one explicitly. In a const declaration, the value of iota begins at zero and increments by one for each item in the sequence. For example:
type Weekday int
const (
Sunday Weekday = iota
Monday
Tuesday
Wednesday
Thursday
Friday
Saturday
) This declares Sunday to be 0, Monday to be 1, and so on.

另外,关于untyped constants的定义:

Constants in Go are a bit unusual. Although a constant can have any of the basic data types like int or float64, including named basic types like time.Duration, many constants are not committed to a particular type. The compiler represents these uncommitted constants with much greater numeric precision than values of basic types, and arithmetic on them is more precise than machine arithmetic; you may assume at least 256 bits of precision. There are six flavors of these uncommitted constants, called untyped boolean, untyped integer, untyped rune, untyped floating-point, untyped complex, and untyped string.

只有constant才可能是untyped,变量不可能是untyped

Only constants can be untyped. When an untyped constant is assigned to a variable, as in the first statement below, or appears on the right-hand side of a variable declaration with an explicit type, as in the other three statements, the constant is implicitly converted to the type of that variable if possible.

var f float64 = 3 + 0i // untyped complex -> float64
f = 2 // untyped integer -> float64
f = 1e123 // untyped floating-point -> float64
f = ‘a’ // untyped rune -> float64
The statements above are thus equivalent to these:
var f float64 = float64(3 + 0i)
f = float64(2)
f = float64(1e123)
f = float64(‘a’)

constant之间转化要考虑是否有可能溢出:

Whether implicit or explicit, converting a constant from one type to another requires that the target type can represent the original value. Rounding is allowed for real and complex floating-point numbers:

const (
deadbeef = 0xdeadbeef // untyped int with value 3735928559
a = uint32(deadbeef) // uint32 with value 3735928559
b = float32(deadbeef) // float32 with value 3735928576 (rounded up)
c = float64(deadbeef) // float64 with value 3735928559 (exact)
d = int32(deadbeef) // compile error: constant overflows int32
e = float64(1e309) // compile error: constant overflows float64
f = uint(-1) // compile error: constant underflows uint )

要注意把untyped constant赋值给变量时,变量类型的选择。

In a variable declaration without an explicit type (including short variable declarations), the flavor of the untyped constant implicitly determines the default type of the variable, as in these examples:

i := 0 // untyped integer; implicit int(0)
r := ‘\000’ // untyped rune; implicit rune(‘\000’)
f := 0.0 // untyped floating-point; implicit float64(0.0)
c := 0i // untyped complex; implicit complex128(0i)

Note the asymmetry: untyped integers are converted to int, whose size is not guaranteed, but untyped floating-point and complex numbers are converted to the explicitly sized types float64 and complex128. The language has no unsized float and complex types analogous to unsized int, because it is very difficult to write correct numerical algorithms without knowing the size of one’s floating-point data types.

To give the variable a different type, we must explicitly convert the untyped constant to the desired type or state the desired type in the variable declaration, as in these examples:

var i = int8(0)
var i int8 = 0

These defaults are particularly important when converting an untyped constant to an interface value since they determine its dynamic type.

fmt.Printf(“%T\n”, 0) // “int”
fmt.Printf(“%T\n”, 0.0) // “float64”
fmt.Printf(“%T\n”, 0i) // “complex128”
fmt.Printf(“%T\n”, ‘\000’) // “int32” (rune)

 

 

《HTTP:The Definitive Guide》笔记(3)—— Web component

(1)Proxy:HTTP intermediaries that sit between clients and servers.A proxy sits between a client and a server, receiving all of the client’s HTTP requests and relaying the requests to the server (perhaps after modifying the requests). These applications act as a proxy for the user, accessing the server on the user’s behalf.

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(2)Cache:A web cache or caching proxy is a special type of HTTP proxy server that keeps copies of popular documents that pass through the proxy. The next client requesting the same document can be served from the cache’s personal copy.

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(3)Gateways:Gateways are special servers that act as intermediaries for other servers. They are often used to convert HTTP traffic to another protocol. A gateway always receives requests as if it was the origin server for the resource. The client may not be aware it is communicating with a gateway.

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(4)Tunnels:Special proxies that blindly forward HTTP communications.Tunnels are HTTP applications that, after setup, blindly relay raw data between two connections. HTTP tunnels are often used to transport non-HTTP data over one or more HTTP connections, without looking at the data.

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(5)Agents:Semi-intelligent web clients that make automated HTTP requests.User agents (or just agents) are client programs that make HTTP requests on the user’s behalf. Any application that issues web requests is an HTTP agent.

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