Tag Archives: Helib

Be careful of FHEcontext’s shallow copy feature in HElib

Published / by nanxiao / Leave a Comment

Check following code which uses HElib:

class A
{
    FHEcontext context;
public:
    FHEcontext& getContext()
    {
        return context;
    }
};

void func()
{
    auto context = a.getContext();
    ......
}

A a;

int main(void)
{
    ......
    func();
    ......
    return 0;
}

In func():

......
auto context = a.getContext();
......

It will allocate a local variable context whose type is FHEcontext, not “FHEcontext&“, and the point is it will be shallow copy of FHEcontext:

class FHEcontext {

......
  //! @breif A default EncryptedArray
  const EncryptedArray* ea;
......
}

FHEcontext::~FHEcontext()
{
  delete ea;
}

So when the local variable context is destroyed, the memory of ea is also released; this will lead to context member of class A references a already freed memory. That will be a disaster!

References:
auto specifier type deduction for references;
The issue about FHEcontext’s copy constructor/assignment operator.

 

Use Ctxt::isCorrect() to check Ctxt valid in using HElib

Published / by nanxiao / Leave a Comment

During using HElib, if the calculation made Ctxt‘s noise too big, it will cause Ctxt can’t be decrypted successfully, and the decrypted result is messy like this:

333317397173303 1016371194582039 217550837977960
737191953777559 1103851234911944 454685807668230
625213263895453 743713807221034 1036409711005678
447878070619549 603715795412661 948856958008786
......

You can leverage Ctxt::isCorrect() method to check whether Ctxt is still valid or not:

std::cout << "Ctxt is valid: " << c.isCorrect() << '\n';

Reference:
Maybe the bug in EncryptedArray’s shift function.

Be cautious of discriminating “Ctxt::multiplyBy()” and “Ctxt::*=”

Published / by nanxiao / Leave a Comment

In the past 2 Days, I was frustrated by an issue, which will cause program crashed at HElib‘s Ctxt::reLinearize() function:

assert(W.toKeyID>=0);       // verify that a switching matrix exists

After tough debugging, the root cause is found: I should use Ctxt::multiplyBy() instead of Ctxt::*=. From Ctxt::multiplyBy()‘s implementation:

void Ctxt::multiplyBy(const Ctxt& other)
{
  // Special case: if *this is empty then do nothing
  if (this->isEmpty()) return;

  *this *= other;  // perform the multiplication
  reLinearize();   // re-linearize
}

We can see besides it calls Ctxt::*=, it also invokesĀ reLinearize(), and that’s point!

Clang may be a better choice than gcc in developing OpenMP program

Published / by nanxiao / Leave a Comment

As referred in The first gcc bug I ever meet, I upgraded gcc to the newest 7.1.0 version to conquer building OpenMP errors. But unfortunately, when using taskloop clause, weird issue happened again. My application utilizes HElib, and I just added following statement in a source file:

#pragma omp taskloop

Then the strange link error reported:

In function `EncryptedArray::EncryptedArray(EncryptedArray const&)':
/root/Project/../../HElib/src/EncryptedArray.h:539: undefined reference to `cloned_ptr<EncryptedArrayBase, deep_clone<EncryptedArrayBase> >::cloned_ptr(cloned_ptr<EncryptedArrayBase, deep_clone<EncryptedArrayBase> > const&)'
collect2: error: ld returned 1 exit status

I tried to debug it, nevertheless, nothing valuable was found.

So I attempted to use clang. Install it on ArchLinux like this:

# pacman -S clang
resolving dependencies...
looking for conflicting packages...

Packages (2) llvm-libs-4.0.0-3  clang-4.0.0-3

Total Download Size:53.24 MiB
Total Installed Size:  275.24 MiB

:: Proceed with installation? [Y/n] y
......
checking available disk space  [#########################################] 100%
:: Processing package changes...
(1/2) installing llvm-libs   [#########################################] 100%
(2/2) installing clang   [#########################################] 100%
Optional dependencies for clang
openmp: OpenMP support in clang with -fopenmp
python2: for scan-view and git-clang-format [installed]
:: Running post-transaction hooks...
(1/1) Arming ConditionNeedsUpdate...

Unlike gcc, to enable OpenMP feature in clang, we need to install an additional openmp package:

# pacman -S openmp

Write a simple program:

# cat parallel.cpp
#include <stdio.h>
#include <omp.h>

int main(void) {
    omp_set_num_threads(5);

    #pragma omp parallel for
    for (int i = 0; i < 5; i++) {

        #pragma omp taskloop
        for (int j = 0; j < 3; j++) {
            printf("%d\n", omp_get_thread_num());
        }

    }   
}

Compile and run it:

# clang++ -fopenmp parallel.cpp
# ./a.out
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
2
4
4
4
4
3
0
1

Clang OpenMP works as I expected. Build my project again, no eccentric errors! Work like a charm!

So according to my testing experience, clang may be a better choice than gcc in developing OpenMP program, especially for some new OpenMP features.