First installation of OpenBSD-current

I have an old laptop, and tried to install OpenBSD-current on it. Unfortunately, no matter from OpenBSD 6.3 to upgrade, or install it from scratch. the machine couldn’t boot successfully. It displayed:

>>OpenBSD/amd64 BOOT 3.39

Then it flashed one line (I couldn’t see that line clearly, and it should display loading something), and the system would reboot again.

At the end, I gave up, and install OpenBSD-current on a virtual machine.


Create only root partition during installing OpenBSD

The default partitions of installing OpenBSD is not appropriate for me:
3I need more space for /, since I want to build source code. So I just create one partition:

1 2

Please notice when creating partitions, there are some useful commands. Such as p, which displays current partition status:


? is for help:


Use z to delete all partitions:


Create the root partition and save it:

7 8

Easy OpenBSD Partition Scheme.

Install and configure Automake on OpenBSD

Today, when I tried to compile a project, “make” complained following errors:

# make
CDPATH="${ZSH_VERSION+.}:" && cd . && /bin/sh /root/project/missing aclocal-1.15
/root/project/missing[81]: aclocal-1.15: not found
WARNING: 'aclocal-1.15' is missing on your system.
         You should only need it if you modified 'acinclude.m4' or
         '' or m4 files included by ''.
         The 'aclocal' program is part of the GNU Automake package:
         It also requires GNU Autoconf, GNU m4 and Perl in order to run:
*** Error 127 in /root/project(Makefile:330 './aclocal.m4')

To fix it, first install Automake:

# pkg_add automake
quirks-2.414 signed on 2018-03-28T14:24:37Z
Ambiguous: choose package for automake
a       0: <None>
        1: automake-1.10.3p8
        2: automake-1.11.6p2
        3: automake-1.12.6p1
        4: automake-1.13.4p1
        5: automake-1.14.1p0
        6: automake-1.15.1
        7: automake-1.4.6p5
        8: automake-1.8.5p9
        9: automake-1.9.6p12
Your choice: 6
automake-1.15.1:autoconf-2.69p2: ok
automake-1.15.1: ok

Then “make” prompted it needs “AUTOCONF_VERSION“:

# make
CDPATH="${ZSH_VERSION+.}:" && cd . && /bin/sh /root/project/missing aclocal-1.15
Provide an AUTOCONF_VERSION environment variable, please
aclocal-1.15: error: echo failed with exit status: 127
WARNING: 'aclocal-1.15' is missing on your system.
         You should only need it if you modified 'acinclude.m4' or
         '' or m4 files included by ''.
         The 'aclocal' program is part of the GNU Automake package:
         It also requires GNU Autoconf, GNU m4 and Perl in order to run:
*** Error 127 in /root/project/ (Makefile:330 './aclocal.m4')

Set AUTOCONF_VERSION environment variable:

# export AUTOCONF_VERSION=2.69

Run “autoreconf -f -i“:

# autoreconf -f -i
Provide an AUTOMAKE_VERSION environment variable, please
autoreconf-2.69: aclocal failed with exit status: 127


# export AUTOMAKE_VERSION=1.15

This time, it worked:

# autoreconf -f -i
# make
/bin/sh ./config.status --recheck

Porting google/benchmark into OpenBSD

I want to use google/benchmark on OpenBSD, but find it support many platforms whereas lacks OpenBSD (the code is here):

#if defined(__CYGWIN__)
#elif defined(_WIN32)
#elif defined(__APPLE__)
  #include "TargetConditionals.h"
  #if defined(TARGET_OS_MAC)
    #if defined(TARGET_OS_IPHONE)
      #define BENCHMARK_OS_IOS 1
#elif defined(__FreeBSD__)
#elif defined(__NetBSD__)
#elif defined(__linux__)
#elif defined(__native_client__)
#elif defined(EMSCRIPTEN)
#elif defined(__rtems__)
#elif defined(__Fuchsia__)
#elif defined (__SVR4) && defined (__sun)

Although it can be built successfully on OpenBSD, but “make test” reports some failures:

# make test


91% tests passed, 5 tests failed out of 54

Total Test time (real) =  40.18 sec

The following tests FAILED:
          1 - benchmark (Child aborted)
         38 - options_benchmarks (Child aborted)
         39 - basic_benchmark (Child aborted)
         43 - fixture_test (Child aborted)
         47 - reporter_output_test (Child aborted)
Errors while running CTest
*** Error 8 in /root/Project/benchmark/build (Makefile:130 'test': /usr/local/bin/ctest --force-new-ctest-process --exclude-regex "CMake.Fil...)

Check the following simple test file:

# cat
#include <benchmark/benchmark.h>

static void BM_StringCreation(benchmark::State& state) {
  for (auto _ : state)
    std::string empty_string;
// Register the function as a benchmark

// Define another benchmark
static void BM_StringCopy(benchmark::State& state) {
  std::string x = "hello";
  for (auto _ : state)
    std::string copy(x);


Compile and run it:

# c++ -I/usr/local/include -L/usr/local/lib -std=c++11 -o test -lbenchmark
root:/root/Project# ./test
failed to open /proc/cpuinfo
2018-05-02 17:14:11
Running ./test
Run on (-1 X 2545.25 MHz CPU )
***WARNING*** Library was built as DEBUG. Timings may be affected.
Benchmark                  Time           CPU Iterations
BM_StringCreation         40 ns         40 ns   17597275
BM_StringCopy             13 ns         13 ns   53511385

failed to open /proc/cpuinfo“? “-1 X 2545.25 MHz CPU“? Messy output, so I decided to port it on OpenBSD:

(1) The first thing to do is defining BENCHMARK_OS_OPENBSDin src/internal_macros.h:

#elif defined(__OpenBSD__)

(2) The second task should fill the value of CPUInfo‘s members:

struct CPUInfo {
  int num_cpus;
  double cycles_per_second;
  std::vector<CacheInfo> caches;
  bool scaling_enabled;

Check CPUInfo‘s constructor:

    : num_cpus(GetNumCPUs()),
      scaling_enabled(CpuScalingEnabled(num_cpus)) {}

I know I need to implement GetNumCPUs(), GetCPUCyclesPerSecond(), etc. For FreeBSD and NetBSD, benchmark uses sysctlbyname function:

if (sysctlbyname(Name.c_str(), nullptr, &CurBuffSize, nullptr, 0) == -1)
    return ValueUnion();

Unfortunately, OpenBSD doesn’t support sysctlbyname, so I use sysctl to get CPU’s number and speed:

 if ((Name == "hw.ncpu") || (Name == "hw.cpuspeed")){
    ValueUnion buff(sizeof(int));
    if (sysctl(mib, 2,, &buff.Size, nullptr, 0) == -1) {
      return ValueUnion();
    return buff;

For cache information, the OpenBSD can’t provide ready-made information, and I think it is not worthy to use other work-around method to get it. E.g., use CPUID instruction on X86 architectures (If you really want to know it, lscpu will give you a hand on X86 platform) . Regarding to whether CPU support scaling or not, I can’t find any help about OpenBSD, so just leave it here.

The whole patch is here. Not sure whether google likes to merge it or not (Update: it is already merged), But at least all test cases can pass on OpenBSD now:

# make test


100% tests passed, 0 tests failed out of 54

Total Test time (real) =  17.54 sec

And the test program also outputs normal log:

# ./test
2018-05-02 14:49:03
Running ./a.out
Run on (2 X 2534 MHz CPU s)
***WARNING*** Library was built as DEBUG. Timings may be affected.
Benchmark                  Time           CPU Iterations
BM_StringCreation         42 ns         42 ns   16761725
BM_StringCopy             13 ns         13 ns   51990267

P.S., if you want to use google/benchmark on OpenBSD, you can consider importing my patch. 🙂

Install vtop on OpenBSD

vtop is a tool which gives you an intuition of CPU/memory usage during a period. This post introduces how to install it on OpenBSD (assuming working asroot account):

(1) Install node.js (refer here):

# pkg_add node

(2) Install vtop:

# npm install -g vtop

(3) Since vtop uses Unicode braille characters to CPU and Memory charts, I need to change OpenBSD to use UTF-8 encoding (refer here and here):

export LC_CTYPE="en_US.UTF-8"

Now, vtop works well on my Cygwin terminal: