Nan Xiao's Blog

A system software / performance engineer's home

Tag: unix (Page 1 of 2)

Use clang to build OpenBSD on amd64/i386

I install the newest OpenBSD 6.1, and try to build -curr kernel. But unfortunately the make reports following errors:

# make
cat /usr/src/sys/arch/amd64/amd64/ /usr/src/sys/arch/amd64/amd64/ |  sh /usr/src/sys/kern/ cc -no-integrated-as -g -Werror -Wall -Wimplicit-function-declaration  -Wno-uninitialized -Wno-pointer-sign  -Wno-address-of-packed-member -Wno-constant-conversion  -Wframe-larger-than=2047 -mcmodel=kernel -mno-red-zone -mno-sse2 -mno-sse -mno-3dnow  -mno-mmx -msoft-float -fno-omit-frame-pointer -ffreestanding -fno-pie -O2 -pipe -nostdinc -I/usr/src/sys -I/usr/src/sys/arch/amd64/compile/GENERIC.MP/obj -I/usr/src/sys/arch -DDDB -DDIAGNOSTIC -DKTRACE -DACCOUNTING -DKMEMSTATS -DPTRACE -DPOOL_DEBUG -DCRYPTO -DSYSVMSG -DSYSVSEM -DSYSVSHM -DUVM_SWAP_ENCRYPT -DFFS -DFFS2 -DFFS_SOFTUPDATES -DUFS_DIRHASH -DQUOTA -DEXT2FS -DMFS -DNFSCLIENT -DNFSSERVER -DCD9660 -DUDF -DMSDOSFS -DFIFO -DFUSE -DSOCKET_SPLICE -DTCP_SACK -DTCP_ECN -DTCP_SIGNATURE -DINET6 -DIPSEC -DPPP_BSDCOMP -DPPP_DEFLATE -DPIPEX -DMROUTING -DMPLS -DBOOT_CONFIG -DUSER_PCICONF -DAPERTURE -DMTRR -DNTFS -DHIBERNATE -DPCIVERBOSE -DUSBVERBOSE -DWSDISPLAY_COMPAT_USL -DWSDISPLAY_COMPAT_RAWKBD -DWSDISPLAY_DEFAULTSCREENS="6" -DX86EMU -DONEWIREVERBOSE -DMULTIPROCESSOR -DMAXUSERS=80 -D_KERNEL -MD -MP -MF assym.P > assym.h.tmp
cc: unrecognized option '-no-integrated-as'
cc1: error: unrecognized command line option "-Wno-address-of-packed-member"
cc1: error: unrecognized command line option "-Wno-constant-conversion"
*** Error 1 in /usr/src/sys/arch/amd64/compile/GENERIC.MP (Makefile:938 'assym.h')

From this mail, I learn that clang has been the default compiler on amd64/i386 platforms for OpenBSD, so I switch to use clang to build kernel:

# CC=clang make

Now it can compile!

Create a symbol link for python after installing it on OpenBSD

After installing Python on FreeBSD:

# pkg_add python
quirks-2.304 signed on 2017-04-02T15:01:33Z
Ambiguous: choose package for python
a       0: <None>
        1: python-2.7.13p0
        2: python-3.4.5p2
        3: python-3.5.2p2
        4: python-3.6.0p0
Your choice: 4

It won’t create a symbol link by default:

# python
ksh: python: not found

So for using it handily, you can create a symbol link yourself:

# cd /usr/local/bin
# ln -s python3.6 python

Use Source Insight as the editor to develop Unix softwares

Source Insight is my favorite editor, and I have used it for more than 10 years. But when employing it to develop Unix software, you will run into annoying line break issue, which is on windows, the newline is \r\n while in Unix it is \n only. Therefore you will see the file edited in Source Insight will display an extra ^M in Unix environment:

#include <stdio.h>^M
int main(void)^M

To resolve this problem, you can refer this topic in stackoverflow:

To save a file with a specific end-of-line type in Source Insight, select File -> Save As…, then where it says “Save as type”, select the desired end-of-line type.

To set the end-of-line type for new files you create in Source Insight, select Options -> Preferences and click the Files tab. Where it says “Default file format” select the desired end-of-line type.

So you can set Unix file format as you wanted:


Another caveat you should pay attention is if you use git Windows client, by default, it will convert the newline of project from \n to \r\n directly. My solution is just disabling this auto conversion feature:

git config --global core.autocrlf false

How to count the line number of a file?

How to count the line number of a file? It seems an easy question for Unix guys: using wc command. Let’s see an example:

# cat test
# wc -l test
3 test

It displays right. But wait a minute, let’s check the wc -l option meaning:

# wc --help
-l, --lines            print the newline counts

wc -l just print the newline counts, so it increases newline count as the line number. Using hexdump to see the content of test:

# hexdump -C test
00000000  61 61 61 61 0a 62 62 62  62 0a 63 63 63 63 0a     |aaaa.bbbb.cccc.|

No problem, test contains 3 newlines. But now, the question is here, how about the last line doesn’t contain newline?

Let me do the following experiment:

# echo -n "a" > test
# hexdump -C test
00000000  61                                                |a|
# wc -l test
0 test

Now the test file only contains 1 character, and no newline. This time, wc -l thinks there is no line in test file.

Based on the previous discussion, maybe awk is a better tool when using to count line number of file. Just one statement:

# awk 'END {print NR}' test

It outputs right line number.

Brief differences between “hard link” and “symbolic link”

target file must exist the same inode with target file
hard link yes yes
symbolic link no no

What is the difference between a symbolic link and a hard link?.


Page 1 of 2

Powered by WordPress & Theme by Anders Norén