What I learn from Practical Binary Analysis as a non-reverse-engineering engineer?

I spent the past two weeks in reading Practical Binary Analysis. Since I am not a professional reverse engineer, I glossed over the “Part III: Advanced Binary Analysis”, so I only read half the book. Even though, I still get a big gain:

(1) Know better of ELF file. On *nix Operating system, ELF file is everywhere: executable file, object file, shared library and coredump. “Chapter 2: The ELF format” gives me a clear explanation of the composition of ELF. E.g., I know why some functions have “@plt” suffix when using gdb to debug it.

(2) Master many tricks about GNU Binutils. GNU Binutils is a toolbox which provides versatile command line programs to analyze ELF files. Literally it relies heavily on BFD library. I also get some sense about how to use BFD library to tweak ELF files.

(3) “Appendix A: A crash course on X86 assembly” is a good tutorial for refreshing X86 architecture and assembly language.

(4) Others: E.g., I understand how to use LD_PRELOAD environmental variable and dynamic linking functions to manipulate shared library.

All in all, if you are working on *nix (although this book is based on Linux, I think most knowledge are also applicable to other *nix), you should try to read this book. I promise it is not a waste of time and you can always learn something, believe me!

What you need may be “pipeline +Unix commands” only

I came across Taco Bell Programming recently, and think this article is worthy to read for every software engineer. The post mentions a scenario which you may consider to use Hadoop to solve but actually xargs may be a simpler and better choice. This reminds me a similar experience: last year a client wanted me to process a data file which has 5 million records. After some investigations, no novel technologies, a concise awk script (less than 10 lines) worked like a charm! What surprised me more is that awk is just a single-thread program, no nifty concurrency involved.

The IT field never lacks “new” technologies: cloud computing, big data, high concurrency, etc. However, the thinkings behind these “fancy” words may date back to the era when Unix arose. Unix command line tools are invaluable treasure. In many cases, picking the right components and using pipeline to glue them can satisfy your requirement perfectly. So spending some time in reviewing Unixcommand line manual instead of chasing state-of-the-art techniques exhaustedly, you may gain more.

BTW, if your data set can be disposed by an awk script, it should not be called “big data”.

The display format of Bash’s built-in time command

Check the default output format of bash‘s built-in time command:

# time

real    0m0.000s
user    0m0.000s
sys     0m0.000s

You can use -p option to output in POSIX format:

# time -p
real 0.00
user 0.00
sys 0.00

From bash source code, we know the the definitions of these two formats:

#define POSIX_TIMEFORMAT "real %2R\nuser %2U\nsys %2S"
#define BASH_TIMEFORMAT  "\nreal\t%3lR\nuser\t%3lU\nsys\t%3lS"

To decipher the meanings of them, we need to refer bash manual:

TIMEFORMAT

The value of this parameter is used as a format string specifying how the timing information for pipelines prefixed with the time reserved word should be displayed. The ‘%’ character introduces an escape sequence that is expanded to a time value or other information. The escape sequences and their meanings are as follows; the braces denote optional portions.

%%
A literal ‘%’.

%[p][l]R
The elapsed time in seconds.

%[p][l]U
The number of CPU seconds spent in user mode.

%[p][l]S
The number of CPU seconds spent in system mode.

%P
The CPU percentage, computed as (%U + %S) / %R.

The optional p is a digit specifying the precision, the number of fractional digits after a decimal point. A value of 0 causes no decimal point or fraction to be output. At most three places after the decimal point may be specified; values of p greater than 3 are changed to 3. If p is not specified, the value 3 is used.

The optional l specifies a longer format, including minutes, of the form MMmSS.FFs. The value of p determines whether or not the fraction is included.
……

Take POSIX_TIMEFORMAT as an example: %2R denotes using second as time unit, and the precision is two digits after a decimal point; %2U and %2S are similar.

Now you can comprehend the output of time, correct? Try using BASH_TIMEFORMAT as a practice.

 

Downgrade boost on Ubuntu 16.04

In the past 2 days, I was tortured by boost. The default boostversion on Ubuntu 16.04 is 1.58, but I met following compile errors:

......
/usr/include/boost/multi_index/detail/bucket_array.hpp: In static member function ‘static std::size_t boost::multi_index::detail::bucket_array_base<_>::size_index(std::size_t)’:
/usr/include/boost/multi_index/detail/bucket_array.hpp:84:62: error: invalid use of non-lvalue array
     const std::size_t *bound=std::lower_bound(sizes,sizes+sizes_length,n);
                                                              ^~~~~~~~~~~~
/usr/include/boost/multi_index/detail/bucket_array.hpp:85:25: error: invalid use of non-lvalue array
     if(bound==sizes+sizes_length)--bound;
                         ^~~~~~~~~~~~
/usr/include/boost/multi_index/detail/bucket_array.hpp:86:22: error: invalid use of non-lvalue array
     return bound-sizes;
......

I downgraded boost to 1.55; and downloaded and built it:

$ ./bootstrap.sh --prefix=/usr/local  
$ sudo ./b2 -a -q install

This time I found the default gcc-5 could not compile successfully. So I followed this post to install gcc-6, and modified/home/nan/boost_1_55_0/tools/build/v2/user-config.jam file to use gcc-6 to compile boost:

......
# Configure specific gcc version, giving alternative name to use.
using gcc : 6 : g++-6 ;
......

Then my project can be compiled successfully. Check gcc search header file path and library path:

$ echo | gcc-6 -E -Wp,-v -
ignoring nonexistent directory "/usr/local/include/x86_64-linux-gnu"
ignoring nonexistent directory "/usr/lib/gcc/x86_64-linux-gnu/6/../../../../x86_64-linux-gnu/include"
#include "..." search starts here:
#include <...> search starts here:
 /usr/lib/gcc/x86_64-linux-gnu/6/include
 /usr/local/include
 /usr/lib/gcc/x86_64-linux-gnu/6/include-fixed
 /usr/include/x86_64-linux-gnu
 /usr/include
......

$ ldconfig -v 2>/dev/null | grep -v ^$'\t'
/usr/local/cuda-9.0/targets/x86_64-linux/lib:
/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libfakeroot:
/usr/local/lib:
/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu:
/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu:
/usr/lib/nvidia-384:
/usr/lib32/nvidia-384:
/lib32:
/usr/lib32:
/lib:
/usr/lib:
/usr/lib/nvidia-384/tls: (hwcap: 0x8000000000000000)
/usr/lib32/nvidia-384/tls: (hwcap: 0x8000000000000000)

You will find the fresh installed boost 1.55 (in /usr/local directory) always be found before default boost 1.58 (header files are in /usr/include/boostand libraries in /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu).