Go语言的int,uint和uintptr类型

以下摘自The Go Programming Language

There are also two types called just int and uint that are the natural or most efficient size for signed and unsigned integers on a particular platform; int is by far the most widely used numeric type. Both these types have the same size, either 32 or 64 bits, but one must not make assumptions about which; different compilers may make different choices even on identical hardware.

Finally, there is an unsigned integer type uintptr, whose width is not specified but is sufficient to hold all the bits of a pointer value. The uintptr type is used only for low-level programming, such as at the boundary of a Go program with a C library or an operating system.

Regardless of their size, int, uint, and uintptr are different types from their explicitly sized siblings. Thus int is not the same type as int32, even if the natural size of integers is 32 bits, and an explicit conversion is required to use an int value where an int32 is needed, and vice versa.

另外关于intuint类型的使用:

Although Go provides unsigned numbers and arithmetic, we tend to use the signed int form even for quantities that can’t be negative, such as the length of an array, though uint might seem a more obvious choice. Indeed, the built-in len function returns a signed int, as in this loop which announces prize medals in reverse order:

medals := []string{“gold”, “silver”, “bronze”}
for i := len(medals) – 1; i >= 0; i– {
fmt.Println(medals[i]) // “bronze”, “silver”, “gold”
}

The alternative would be calamitous. If len returned an unsigned number, then i too would be a uint, and the condition i >= 0 would always be true by definition. After the third iteration, in which i == 0, the i– statement would cause i to become not −1, but the maximum uint value, and the evaluation of medals[i] would fail at run time, or panic, by attempting to access an element outside the bounds of the slice.

For this reason, unsigned numbers tend to be used only when their bitwise operators or peculiar arithmetic operators are required, as when implementing bit sets, parsing binary file formats, or for hashing and cryptography. They are typically not used for merely non-negative quantities.

多数时候,在Golang中应该使用int类型,即使有些变量不可能为负数。否则可能会出现严重的问题(就像上面的例子)。而uint仅仅是用在位运算,hash运算等等少数情况中。

 

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